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The Coercer

The Coercer influences, manipulates or bribes another person to act in a desired way to dishonestly gain personal benefits.

This might involve negative incentives such as threats or intimidation, or positive incentives such as favour or monetary kickbacks.


  • A criminal organisation threatens public officials to win government contracts.
  • An individual intimidates another person to make them hand over personal or banking information to commit fraud.

Case studies


Counter the Coercer using measures that support probity, information security, oversight and deterrence:

Limit and control functionality within systems with user permissions. Assign permissions to users based on specific business needs such as making high-risk functions limited to specialised users.

Separate duties by spreading tasks and associated privileges for a business process among multiple staff. This is very important in areas such as payroll, finance, procurement, contract management and human resources. Strong separation of duties controls are enforced by systems. It is also known as segregation of duties.

Conduct internal or external audits or reviews to evaluate the process, purpose and outcome of activities. Clients, public officials or contractors can take advantage of weaknesses in government programs and systems to commit fraud, act corruptly, and avoid exposure.

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